The Japanese current account balance， called the Current Account Total， summarizes the flow of goods， services， income and transfers in and out of Japan .
The Current Account is more expansive than the trade balance as it also includes transfer payments， such as foreign aid， and income flows， which are the returns on investments in foreign assets.
Nonetheless， the most significant component of the Japanese current account is the trade balance figure.
Japan has historically had an export oriented economy and has relied on exports as the engine for overall economic expansion.
Today still， trade surpluses form the foundation of consistent Japanese current account surpluses.
The Current Account is useful as a measure of net international trade flows， which directly affect currency values.
A current account surplus reflects Yen flowing into Japan and this puts pressure on Yen to appreciate.
On the contrary， a current account deficit means that more Yen are leaving the country from these sources， and this exerts downward pressure on the Yen.